Nicotine dependence and Perceived Stress during the Pandemic

Nicotine dependence and Perceived Stress during the Pandemic


  • Dyah Ayu Woro Setyaningrum
  • Irgie Catur Ryansyah


Background: Prior studies in several countries have shown that stress affects smokers during the COVID-19 pandemic. It affects smokers in two different ways, either they increase smoking or decrease smoking. This study aimed to determine stress in smokers, smoking history, and their change in smoking habits during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: We conducted an online survey among active smokers in one of the villages in the South Lampung district, Indonesia in November 2020 (n = 150). Included in the survey are age, sex, marital status, age of smoking initiation, duration as a smoker, changes in smoking frequency, questionnaire for nicotine dependence, and The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS).

Results: The results showed that the PSS score had a significant association with changes in smoking frequency (p=0.004) and nicotine dependence (p=0.001).

Conclusion: The study concluded that variations in nicotine dependence and changing smoking habits impacted perceived stress in smokers during the Pandemic.


Keywords: stress, perceived stress, smoking habits, COVID-19, nicotine dependence


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How to Cite

Setyaningrum DAW, Ryansyah IC. Nicotine dependence and Perceived Stress during the Pandemic. J Biomedika dan Kesehat [Internet]. 2023 Apr. 30 [cited 2023 May 29];6(1). Available from:



Original Article