Phenomena of the most Frequent Cold Symptoms in COVID-19 Patients

This is an outdated version published on 2022-12-22. Read the most recent version.



  • Joekly Wahidan Muharaam Medical Undergraduate Programe, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Diana Samara FK Trisakti



cough, cold, fever, fever, antigen rapid test, COVID-19



COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a new coronavirus that has never been identified in humans that causes various symptoms. Symptoms of COVID-19 that are quite often found are cough, runny nose, fever. Antigen rapid test is an examination with high sensitivity and specificity, often used in COVID-19 detection. This study aims to determine the relationship between cough, cold, and fever symptoms with positive results of COVID-19 antigen rapid test.



This study used cross-sectional design using medical records. The variables assessed were cough, cold, fever, and the results of COVID-19 antigen rapid test. Data analysis was performed using chi-square test and logistic regression test with significance level of p<0.05.



Subject are mostly are 31-45 years old and female. Subjects had symptoms of cough (88.2%), fever (80%), and runny nose (60%). The results of the COVID-19 rapid test antigen were found to be more reactive (80%). The distribution of reactive results of the COVID-19 rapid antigen test was 86.7% in cough, 92.2% in colds, and 91.2% in fever. There was a significant relationship between cough (p=0.000), runny nose (p=0.001), and fever (p=0.000) with reactive results of the COVID-19 rapid test antigen. Patients with cold symptoms have an 8.67 times greater risk of reactive COVID-19 antigen rapid tests.



There is a relationship between symptoms of cough, runny nose, and fever with reactive results in patients aged 17 years and over. Complaints of a cold have a higher risk of reactive results on the COVID-19 rapid test antigen examination compared to cough and fever. This means that patients with colds need to be more aware of being infected with COVID-19 than other complaints.


Keywords: cough, cold, fever, antigen rapid test, COVID-19


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2022-12-22 — Updated on 2022-12-22


How to Cite

Muharaam JW, Samara D. English. J Biomedika dan Kesehat [Internet]. 2022 Dec. 22 [cited 2024 Mar. 5];5(3). Available from:



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